Transhumans are similar to the baseline anatomically modern homo sapiens sapeins, but have embraced technology in the form of implants, synthetic fiber optic neural pathways – rewiring of parts of the brain to allow faster cognition – prosthetics, and medical devices to enhance their abilities, physical and mental.

All transhumans have a web of implants in their heads.  The implants are mostly little calculators and computers with search-and-retrieve algorithms.  They also have implants connecting directly to their their optical nerves, which can augment reality by overlaying data and imagery over what they see in what most consider to be reality.  Transhumans also utilize a retrovirus that myelinates all of their axons, giving them the ability to think, perceive, and react faster.  In addition, certain axons have been replaced with froptic pathways, giving them the ability to greatly speed up or slow down their consciousness at will.  As any computer does, internal or external, their implants and froptic pathways generate heat that must be purged.  Around the late 22nd century, biological modifications became the vogue, becoming a sort of fashion statement: many transhumans adopted biological cooling modifications.  Some elected to build crests on their heads; some elected to greatly enlarge their ears to animal shapes (having cat ears or cow-like ears), some choose spikes and horns, and so on – the purpose of which is to allow the blood in their brain to flow closely to the skin to be cooled.  

Transhumans are not necessarily smarter than an average baseline human, and definitely not smarter than an average posthuman, but they can think faster, react faster, and have greater memory recall.  Most transhumans in the sciences have external hard drives either embedded somewhere in their bodies – in a shoulder or a rib – or carried around with them to store memories and databases.  Transhumans don’t have telepathy, per se, but rather essentially send text and voice messages to each others’ “phones” that are wired directly into their brains.

As this tech was becoming popular, privacy was a huge concern—specifically, privacy of emotions and thought.  Implants were developed to translate subvocal speech into simple text so emotion was kept out of the loop.  The popularity of modification and the concern over privacy created a black swan:  emotion became extremely taboo to express openly.  Despite the more intimate contact enabled by communication directly into each others’ heads, transhumans eventually lost their desire to be emotional creatures, choosing to edit out unpleasant emotion as it arose.  Another form of implant was invented that gave its wearer the ability to adjust their brain chemistry, such as damping stress hormones.  Transhumans still feel happiness, but love has almost completely gone away.  As a result, birthrates have consistently declined over the years to such a point that new laws had to be put into place:  eligible males and females must enter into a birthing lottery.  Healthy males and females must procreate, but are not required to raise the child; there are societies willing to raise these children.

Prosthetics also became vogue, so lots of transhumans have prosthetic limbs that aid physical activity, such as spring-loaded joints, pneumatic spines, simple glass or plastic sheaths instead of skin, and the like.  This is seen mostly among soldiers and the very rich.

Transhuman fiercely disagree with the posthuman take on eugenics, this difference being a main contention in the war.